Steer-by-wire (SBW) systems allow the amount of steering wheel operation to be transmitted in the form of electric signals to the vehicle wheels. These systems help improve control performance for vehicle safety while increasing vehicle design freedom.
The steering wheel and the brake pedal do not operate mechanically in the BMW Z22, but use electric impulses (steer-by-wire, brake-by-wire) to transfer
the commands from the driver.
JTEKT active-front-steering system
This system includes a unit comprising two motors and a differential gear mechanism capable of controlling steering angle and compensating for reactive torque, making steering compensation without driver interference possible.
Nissan’s steer-by-wire (SBW) system includes a fail-safe clutch in its column.
Most of the time it's open. Faults in the electronics force it closed, creating a solid mechanical connection between the steering wheel and the rack.
In addition to steering functions, this steering system makes it possible to adjust the toe angle.