Efficient exhaust gas recirculation (EGR)
The 48V e4Boost solution, composed of an Electric Supercharger 48V and a Belt Starter Generator iBSG 48V, recovers a maximum amount of braking energy and stores it in a 48V battery.
With conventional wastegated turbochargers or fixed geometry turbochargers (FGT), a turbine flow area cannot be adjusted during operation.
Knocking is abnormal combustion in which the air-fuel mixture ignites prematurely due to exposure to high temperature and pressure, creating an unwanted high-frequency noise. When the compression ratio is increased, the temperature at compression top dead center (TDC) also rises, increasing the probability of knocking.