BorgWarner received a 2013 Automotive News PACE Innovation Partnership Award for its collaboration with BMW on the first regulated three-stage (R3S) turbocharging system for diesel engines.
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M Performance TwinPower Turbo Inline 6-Cylinder Diesel Engine
Power output and torque diagrams
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With conventional wastegated turbochargers or fixed geometry turbochargers (FGT), a turbine flow area cannot be adjusted during operation.
Knocking is abnormal combustion in which the air-fuel mixture ignites prematurely due to exposure to high temperature and pressure, creating an unwanted high-frequency noise. When the compression ratio is increased, the temperature at compression top dead center (TDC) also rises, increasing the probability of knocking.