The exhaust gas turbocharger housing and manifold are as an assembly or sub-assembly directly belong together, but only over a flange formed. In particular, the entire system is double-layered, so that an internal system and an outdoor system prevail, wherein both system are spaced apart from each other.
With conventional wastegated turbochargers or fixed geometry turbochargers (FGT), a turbine flow area cannot be adjusted during operation.
Knocking is abnormal combustion in which the air-fuel mixture ignites prematurely due to exposure to high temperature and pressure, creating an unwanted high-frequency noise. When the compression ratio is increased, the temperature at compression top dead center (TDC) also rises, increasing the probability of knocking.