GDI pump and injector
With their recent application in Formula 1, they see the prospect of fuel pressures raised even further - with a limit of up to 600 bar - and they are therefore even more effective in the reduction of particulate matter, as well as contributing to downsizing of the engine coupled with the turbo.
With conventional wastegated turbochargers or fixed geometry turbochargers (FGT), a turbine flow area cannot be adjusted during operation.
Knocking is abnormal combustion in which the air-fuel mixture ignites prematurely due to exposure to high temperature and pressure, creating an unwanted high-frequency noise. When the compression ratio is increased, the temperature at compression top dead center (TDC) also rises, increasing the probability of knocking.