Intermediate locking system adopting Late Intake-Valve Closing Miller cycle enhances fuel efficiency by approx. 3% compared to conventional VVT.
With conventional wastegated turbochargers or fixed geometry turbochargers (FGT), a turbine flow area cannot be adjusted during operation.
Knocking is abnormal combustion in which the air-fuel mixture ignites prematurely due to exposure to high temperature and pressure, creating an unwanted high-frequency noise. When the compression ratio is increased, the temperature at compression top dead center (TDC) also rises, increasing the probability of knocking.