direct injection turbocharging
thorough reduction in engine friction
High output and high response were achieved by VTEC, a high-output turbocharger, direct injection technology, and a high-performance cooling system.
The VTEC variable valve train system with thoroughly reduced friction, a turbocharger with a low moment of inertia and high responsiveness, and direct injection technology to achieve good balance between high output and torque.
With conventional wastegated turbochargers or fixed geometry turbochargers (FGT), a turbine flow area cannot be adjusted during operation.
Knocking is abnormal combustion in which the air-fuel mixture ignites prematurely due to exposure to high temperature and pressure, creating an unwanted high-frequency noise. When the compression ratio is increased, the temperature at compression top dead center (TDC) also rises, increasing the probability of knocking.