In terms of driving comfort, a driver evaluates the entire clutch and actuation system according to smooth disengagement behavior, the user-friendly force-travel characteristics on the clutch pedal, silent and vibration-free actuation as well as good modulation behavior during startup and gearshift operations. The entire system, from pedal to clutch, must function in all operating conditions and ensure smooth interaction with other vehicle components. Consideration of the entire chain of functions requires sub-functions in the clutch system to be carefully matched to each other. When the clutch pedal is activated, the driver senses the clutch system's response. To satisfy the requirements placed on the clutch pedal, clutch system components must be matched in terms of friction, rigidity and mechanical advantage. The LuK product range comprises all elements for actuating manual transmissions including master and slave cylinders, mechanical lever systems with release bearings, hydraulic clutch release systems for hybrid drives, and engagement systems for wet and dry double clutch actuation systems.
With conventional wastegated turbochargers or fixed geometry turbochargers (FGT), a turbine flow area cannot be adjusted during operation.
Knocking is abnormal combustion in which the air-fuel mixture ignites prematurely due to exposure to high temperature and pressure, creating an unwanted high-frequency noise. When the compression ratio is increased, the temperature at compression top dead center (TDC) also rises, increasing the probability of knocking.