An automotive publication entitled "Auto Notizie", published by the Cizeta Moroder Company of Italy, in May 1989. That publication describes a V-16 engine with two independent crankshafts arranged end-to-end. The adjacent ends of the crankshafts are connected at their ends to a drive gear, and engine crankshaft torque is delivered through an idler to a bevel gear which serves as a torque input shaft for a multiple ratio transmission having an axis disposed perpendicularly with respect to the crankshaft axis.
With conventional wastegated turbochargers or fixed geometry turbochargers (FGT), a turbine flow area cannot be adjusted during operation.
Knocking is abnormal combustion in which the air-fuel mixture ignites prematurely due to exposure to high temperature and pressure, creating an unwanted high-frequency noise. When the compression ratio is increased, the temperature at compression top dead center (TDC) also rises, increasing the probability of knocking.