HVOF (High Velocity Oxy-Fuel)
During the APS process temperatures up to 20.000 "C are obtained, therefor this system is mainly used for refractory materials. Precedent to the coating process a grit blasting and degreasing of the substrate surface is performed.
HVOF equipment for the inside coating of light metal cylinder bores
With conventional wastegated turbochargers or fixed geometry turbochargers (FGT), a turbine flow area cannot be adjusted during operation.
Knocking is abnormal combustion in which the air-fuel mixture ignites prematurely due to exposure to high temperature and pressure, creating an unwanted high-frequency noise. When the compression ratio is increased, the temperature at compression top dead center (TDC) also rises, increasing the probability of knocking.