Magneti Marelli Motorsport
KERS (Kinetic Energy Recovery System) for F1: the electric motor produces torque during gear changes and at the same time allows for the reduction of fuel consumption.
In Figure 4 there is shown a preferred embodiment of the invention, in which the induction manifold 41 is a common manifold and is connected, as in the preceding embodiment, to both the compressors of the two turbo-compressor units, whilst the induction duct 42 is a common duct for the first part of its length where the injectors 43 and butterfly valves 44 are positioned, and then splits into two ducts 45 and 46 connected to the induction valves 47 and 48.
In Figure 2, the reference numeral 30 indicates two exhaust ducts which open into two manifolds 31, connected, as in Figure 1, to two turbo-compressor units.
An arrangement of this type permits a rational installation of only one turbo-compressor unit, whilst the current tendency, above all in racing engines, is to utilise at least two turbo-compressor units for the purpose of reducing the "response time" and the loss of power at low engine speeds to the minimum.
With conventional wastegated turbochargers or fixed geometry turbochargers (FGT), a turbine flow area cannot be adjusted during operation.
Knocking is abnormal combustion in which the air-fuel mixture ignites prematurely due to exposure to high temperature and pressure, creating an unwanted high-frequency noise. When the compression ratio is increased, the temperature at compression top dead center (TDC) also rises, increasing the probability of knocking.