In Figure 4 there is shown a preferred embodiment of the invention, in which the induction manifold 41 is a common manifold and is connected, as in the preceding embodiment, to both the compressors of the two turbo-compressor units, whilst the induction duct 42 is a common duct for the first part of its length where the injectors 43 and butterfly valves 44 are positioned, and then splits into two ducts 45 and 46 connected to the induction valves 47 and 48.
In Figure 2, the reference numeral 30 indicates two exhaust ducts which open into two manifolds 31, connected, as in Figure 1, to two turbo-compressor units.
An arrangement of this type permits a rational installation of only one turbo-compressor unit, whilst the current tendency, above all in racing engines, is to utilise at least two turbo-compressor units for the purpose of reducing the "response time" and the loss of power at low engine speeds to the minimum.
LS7 - 482 grams (Gen 4 LS7 engine)
482-gram flat top aluminum piston
LS9 - 546g
Forged-aluminum pistons with oil-spray cooling
The high-revving 4.5-liter V8 redesigned pistons increase the Speciale's compression ratio from 12.5:1 to 14.0:1. The efficiency increase it brings is the main reason the engine produces 596 hp, 34 more than the regular 458 Italia's, at the same 9000 rpm.
The shape has been optimized to improve the flame velocity
The pressure in the combustion chamber is increased (+10bar at wide open throttle)
HVOF (High Velocity Oxy-Fuel)
During the APS process temperatures up to 20.000 "C are obtained, therefor this system is mainly used for refractory materials. Precedent to the coating process a grit blasting and degreasing of the substrate surface is performed.
HVOF equipment for the inside coating of light metal cylinder bores
Connecting rod and Piston of the R18 V6TDI
Subaru FB engine connecting rod
The angled cap is used to fit on small bore applications, or for cam clearance.
Angle-split connecting rods have the disadvantage that the upper part of the blind hole thread is located directly in the path of greatest stress.
With conventional wastegated turbochargers or fixed geometry turbochargers (FGT), a turbine flow area cannot be adjusted during operation.
Knocking is abnormal combustion in which the air-fuel mixture ignites prematurely due to exposure to high temperature and pressure, creating an unwanted high-frequency noise. When the compression ratio is increased, the temperature at compression top dead center (TDC) also rises, increasing the probability of knocking.