BorgWarner Beru Systems
HFI is based on the phenomenon of corona discharge.
Precise ignition timing
Enabler for alternative combustion processes, such as HCCI
Enabler for reduced mixture enrichment under full load
Combustion diagnostics by flame front detection
Management of the ignition energy by intelligent electronic control
Long single spark duration and high ignition energy
The high-revving 4.5-liter V8 redesigned pistons increase the Speciale's compression ratio from 12.5:1 to 14.0:1. The efficiency increase it brings is the main reason the engine produces 596 hp, 34 more than the regular 458 Italia's, at the same 9000 rpm.
The shape has been optimized to improve the flame velocity
The pressure in the combustion chamber is increased (+10bar at wide open throttle)
Porsche LMP1 919 Hybrid engine
The motor-generator unit on the Porsche is driven by a separate turbine in the exhaust system.
Function test V4 race engine
NASCAR under-frame exhaust pipe exit
Engine type M 291
Spark plugs 2 per cylinder
With conventional wastegated turbochargers or fixed geometry turbochargers (FGT), a turbine flow area cannot be adjusted during operation.
Knocking is abnormal combustion in which the air-fuel mixture ignites prematurely due to exposure to high temperature and pressure, creating an unwanted high-frequency noise. When the compression ratio is increased, the temperature at compression top dead center (TDC) also rises, increasing the probability of knocking.