The Bosch-Mahle turbocharging system consists of turbine, compressor, rotor and bearing, as well as actuator. The optimized aero components on the compressor and turbine for a higher efficiency of system, the exhaust-gas turbocharger are also particularly designed to provide high engine torque even at a low speed or with limited flow of exhaust gas.
With conventional wastegated turbochargers or fixed geometry turbochargers (FGT), a turbine flow area cannot be adjusted during operation.
Knocking is abnormal combustion in which the air-fuel mixture ignites prematurely due to exposure to high temperature and pressure, creating an unwanted high-frequency noise. When the compression ratio is increased, the temperature at compression top dead center (TDC) also rises, increasing the probability of knocking.