Photo: Ferrari Muséet
The system uses a camshaft with multi‐dimensional cam lobes.
9 Exhaust flap (with exhaust flap actuator)
This exhaust flap is controlled by the DME (Digital Engine Electronics) and is closed in idle position, at low load and in coasting/overrun mode. As a result, the noise level of the combustion engine is reduced. At high load the exhaust flap is opened, whereby the exhaust gas back-pressure is reduced and the engine performance is increased. The exhaust flap can be replaced separately from the rear silencer.
Independent Shift Rail (ISR)
With conventional wastegated turbochargers or fixed geometry turbochargers (FGT), a turbine flow area cannot be adjusted during operation.
Knocking is abnormal combustion in which the air-fuel mixture ignites prematurely due to exposure to high temperature and pressure, creating an unwanted high-frequency noise. When the compression ratio is increased, the temperature at compression top dead center (TDC) also rises, increasing the probability of knocking.