- cam phaser
- actuated intermediate shaft
2 Exhaust valve closes B Loss
3 Intake valve closes
The loss area can be equated to the charge cycle, relating to the amount of energy that must be applied in order to expel the combusted exhaust gasses from the cylinder and then to draw the fresh gasses again into the cylinder. (Source: BMW AG)
combustion, which enable removal of harmful emissions by a low-cost catalyst. In such engines, power is controlled by the amount of air let into the cylinders, which is usually accomplished using a throttle valve.