Turbo lag is defined as the time delay before the turbocharger has produced boost pressure.
ALS (anti-lag system) is an engine management technique that allows to minimize the turbo lag time.
Anti-lag is when a turbocharger is subjected to a very late burn causing the exhaust to expand in the turbine housing. This energy is concentrated at the turbocharger causing a very quick turbo spool up. The EMS supports two different types, including a rally style and drag race antilag.
4G6 secondary air control
With conventional wastegated turbochargers or fixed geometry turbochargers (FGT), a turbine flow area cannot be adjusted during operation.
Knocking is abnormal combustion in which the air-fuel mixture ignites prematurely due to exposure to high temperature and pressure, creating an unwanted high-frequency noise. When the compression ratio is increased, the temperature at compression top dead center (TDC) also rises, increasing the probability of knocking.