Opel 1.0L 3-cylinder turbo for AdamThe exhaust manifold is integrated inside the aluminum cylinder head, which is bolted directly to the low-inertia, water-cooled turbocharger. This compact installation contributes to the delivery of a fast boost charge for strong, low-end power.
Honda LEV IMA systemThe IMA system features a compact cylinder head with the exhaust manifold integrated into the casting.
With conventional wastegated turbochargers or fixed geometry turbochargers (FGT), a turbine flow area cannot be adjusted during operation.
Knocking is abnormal combustion in which the air-fuel mixture ignites prematurely due to exposure to high temperature and pressure, creating an unwanted high-frequency noise. When the compression ratio is increased, the temperature at compression top dead center (TDC) also rises, increasing the probability of knocking.