An electrically driven coolant pump supplies indirect charge-air cooling fully flexibly and on-demand in the low-temperature circuit and during turbocharger run-on after the engine has been switched off.
Engine cooling through the high-temperature circuit is via the thermostat casing with an integrated water pump driven via the exhaust camshaft by a zero-maintenance toothed belt.
With conventional wastegated turbochargers or fixed geometry turbochargers (FGT), a turbine flow area cannot be adjusted during operation.
Knocking is abnormal combustion in which the air-fuel mixture ignites prematurely due to exposure to high temperature and pressure, creating an unwanted high-frequency noise. When the compression ratio is increased, the temperature at compression top dead center (TDC) also rises, increasing the probability of knocking.