Ackermann double-pivot steering
Jeantaud modification of Ackermann system
Steer-by-wire (SBW) systems allow the amount of steering wheel operation to be transmitted in the form of electric signals to the vehicle wheels. These systems help improve control performance for vehicle safety while increasing vehicle design freedom.
The steering wheel and the brake pedal do not operate mechanically in the BMW Z22, but use electric impulses (steer-by-wire, brake-by-wire) to transfer
the commands from the driver.
JTEKT active-front-steering system
This system includes a unit comprising two motors and a differential gear mechanism capable of controlling steering angle and compensating for reactive torque, making steering compensation without driver interference possible.
Nissan’s steer-by-wire (SBW) system includes a fail-safe clutch in its column.
Most of the time it's open. Faults in the electronics force it closed, creating a solid mechanical connection between the steering wheel and the rack.
In addition to steering functions, this steering system makes it possible to adjust the toe angle.
A solid tubular beam holds the opposite wheels in parallel, but unlike a sway bar the tube is not directly attached to the chassis and without the torsional flexibility of a twist-beam suspension. The tube can move laterally and allows the wheel track to vary, this is necessary as the wheels are always kept parallel to each other, thus perpendicular to the ground during bound and rebound travel.
Electro- (ER) and magnetorheological (MR) fluids are electric and magnetic field responsive colloidal suspensions.
Practical ER and MR liquids have a high proportion of dense solids in small particles (a few micrometres) carried in a lower-density liquid, giving a very high density mixture.
In recent years, NSK has been developing and manufacturing products in response to the electrification of vehicles, including parts for hybrid cars, electric vehicles, and automobiles powered by fuel cells. NSK is producing compact, lightweight bearings that reduce friction loss and noise, always striving to make automobiles more reliable and fuel efficient.
For instance, both the drive system of the Toyota Prius and the rear axle of the world’s first diesel hybrid car (developed by PSA Peugeot-Citroën) use NSK bearings.
The drive system combines a high-speed electric motor (up to 40,000 rpm) – featuring a reduction gear to boost efficiency and reduce noise – with a dual-speed transmission. This system is hallmarked by its high efficiency and outstanding performance.
A new Sinusoidal Vane cast iron disc has been developed for Nascar, with others due to follow in Touring Car, GT and Rally classes. Running between 70-100°C cooler than the old design, the new S Vane disc provides a significant improvement in brake performance, wear rate and reliability. (Source: AP Racing)
Concept of the friction stir welding method
Hydro Aluminium's light alloy car wheel, where the rim was friction stir welded to the hub.