A wheel is comprised of a hub, spokes and rim. Sometimes these components will be one piece, sometimes two or three. The hub is the center portion of the wheel and is what attaches the wheel to the suspension. The spokes radiate out from the hub and attach to the rim. The rim is the outer part of the wheel that holds the tire. While many people refer to wheels as "rims," this is technically incorrect.
forged split wheels
Minardi FRIC system
Magnetorheological (MR) fluid
Flow in a demagnetized channel without applied field.
RaceActive Chassis Control (RCC)
McLaren P1 features adjustable ride height as part of the new hydro-pneumatic suspension.
Image: McLaren Automotive
Static ride height at the front and rear of the vehicle may be independently adjusted by pumping hydraulic fluid from heave bump hydraulic circuit 33 to heave rebound hydraulic circuit 31 and vice-versa. For both the heave and roll circuits, stiffness may be adjusted by pumping hydraulic fluid equally into the respective hydraulic circuits to compress gas or air in the accumulators to adjust their spring rate.
Source: Patent US20120242057 A1
Wheel Rate Ride Rate
Natural Frequencies Sprung & Unsprung
Critical Damping Sprung & Unsprung
Desired Damping Ratio
Compression Damping Low & High speed
Rebound Damping Low & High speed
ZF AKC (Active Kinematics Control)
ZF Servolectric electric power steering system
The servo unit is mounted in parallel to the steering rack (EPSapa)
As soon as the driver turns the steering wheel, sensors register the corresponding steering torque and steering speed with absolute precision.The registered data are used to calculate the required steering assistance and, based on the calculated results, to control the servomotor.
In the final step, the motor transmits the optimum servo torque – via worm gear or recirculating ball gear – to the steering rack (EPSapa) in the mechanical rack and pinion steering system.
The method of making a wheel as set forth in claim 5 wherein said weld joint is made by arc welding a flare bevel full-penetration weld with the outer surface of said weld being generally flush with the adjacent surface of said rim outboard bead seat surface.
Source: US4610482 A